Galileo (1564-1642) began to get in trouble around the age of forty when his observations and discussions of the Supernova of 1604 (aka Kepler's Supernova) concluded that it contradicted the Aristotelian notion of the immutability of the heavens.
Subsequent observations with telescopes of his own manufacture confirmed the existence of four moons circling Jupiter, another blow against the Aristotelian cosmology.
He might have been able to gain acceptance for the heliocentric universe if he had not picked a major fight with the Jebbies of Collegio Romano (founded in 1551 by Saint Ignatius of Loyola) now called The Pontifical Gregorian University or the Gregorianum. In a series of escalating, devastating and gratuitously insulted exchanges, Galilieo made a major intellectual and institutional enemy of his method of science, one very closely aligned with both the Papacy and the Roman Inquisition.
In 1616, the Inquisition found that heliocentrism to be "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture." Galileo's writings were placed on the Index of Banned Books and he was ordered not to teach his findings and conclusions.
Unfortunately, in a book he was cleared to write covering both theories, Galileo or a student put the words of the Pope -- Urban VIII who had been protecting Galileo from more punitive measures -- in the mouth of a straw man named Simplicio (the Simpleton) who was made to look quite foolish.
He was convicted of heresy, required to denounce heliocentrism and sentenced to house arrest for the remainder of his life.
He was initially buried in a side chapel, but after about one hundred years the Father of Science was admitted to the main body of the basilica of Sante Croce.